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BMD

Bone mineral density.

A measure of the amount of minerals (mostly calcium and phosphorous) contained in a certain volume of bone. Bone mineral density measurements are used to diagnose osteoporosis (a condition marked by decreased bone mass), to see how well osteoporosis treatments are working, and to predict how likely the bones are to break. Low bone mineral density can occur in patients treated for cancer. A bone mineral density scan is an imaging test that measures bone density (the amount of bone mineral contained in a certain volume of bone) by passing x-rays with two different energy levels through the bone through an area of the body such as the hip, hand, or foot for signs of mineral loss and bone thinning. It is used to diagnose osteoporosis (decrease in bone mass and density). Also called DEXA scan, BMD scan, dual energy x-ray absorptiometric scan, dual x-ray absorptiometry, DXA, and DEXA.

BMI

Body mass index. A measure of obesity calculated from weight and height.

Body mass index (BMI) is used to assess weight and determine whether a patient is at a healthy weight. Being overweight puts strain on the heart and can lead to serious health problems such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, sleep apnea, varicose veins, and other chronic conditions.

BMR

Basal metabolic rate.

The basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the number of calories the body uses when it is at rest. The basal metabolic rate is based on basic bodily functions such as breathing, digesting, and energy used for the heart and brain function. Age, sex, body weight, amount of muscle tissue and level of physical activity affect the basal metabolic rate.

Bone Density

The amount of bone tissue in a certain volume of bone.The amount of bone tissue in a certain volume of bone.

A measure of the amount of minerals (mostly calcium and phosphorous) contained in a certain volume of bone. Bone density measurements are used to diagnose osteoporosis (a condition marked by decreased bone mass), to see how well osteoporosis treatments are working, and to predict how likely the bones are to break. Low bone density can occur in patients treated for cancer. Also called BMD, bone mass, and bone mineral density.

Bone Density Management

Used to assess the strength and "age" of a bone by measuring its density.

Most commonly determined by DEXA scan of the spine and hip. See BMD or bone mineral density.

Bromocriptine

An example of a dopamine agonist.

Used to treat prolactinomas as dopamine and dopamine-like drugs suppress prolactin production and secretion and can lead to tumor shrinkage.

Calcification

The strengthening and hardening of a bone in areas where calcium has been deposited.

Nearly all calcium entering the body is deposited in bones and teeth. The remaining calcium is dissolved in the blood. When a disorder affects the balance between calcium and other minerals or chemicals in the body, calcium can be deposited in other parts of the body, such as arteries, kidneys, lungs, and brain, and can cause problems in their normal function. Calcifications can usually be diagnosed using x-rays.

CAMP

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate.

The adrenal gland produces a hormone called epinephrine, which travels to the body's cells and causes an increase in blood sugar. The sugar gives the body energy to react to stressful situations. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), stimulates the breakdown of stored carbohydrate into sugar.

Cancer

General term frequently used to indicate any of various types of malignant neoplasms.

Most cancers invade surrounding tissues, may metastasize to several sites, and are likely to recur after attempted removal and to cause death of the patient unless adequately treated.

Carcinoma

A malignant tumor that arises from epithelium found in skin or, more commonly, the lining of body organs

Carcinomas can be found in the breast, prostate, lung, stomach or bowel. Carcinomas tend to infiltrate into adjacent tissue and spread (metastasize) to distant organs, for example, to bone, liver, lung or the brain.

Carotid Artery

The artieries which carry blood up through the neck, eventually supplying the brain with its major blood supply.

Carotid artery: Either of the two key arteries located in the front of the neck, through which blood from the heart goes to the brain. The right and left common carotid arteries are located on each side of the neck. Together, these arteries provide the principal blood supply to the head and neck. The left common carotid artery arises directly from the aorta. The right common carotid artery arises from the brachiocephalic artery, which, in turn, comes off the aorta. Each of the two divides to form external and internal carotid arteries. Cholesterol plaque on the inner wall of the carotid artery can lead to a stroke. These vessels are also found within the cavernous sinus.

Catheter

A tubular instrument to allow passage of fluid from or into a body cavity.

Tubular device inserted into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids. Examples of use; heart or urinary catheterization. Catheterization is also used for diagnostic purposes.

Cavernous Sinus

Area adjacent to the sphenoid sinus containing several vital nerves and blood vessels.

A large channel of venous blood creating a "sinus" cavity bordered by the sphenoid bone and the temporal bone of the skull. The cavernous sinus is an important structure because of its location and its contents which include the third cranial (oculomotor) nerve, the fourth cranial (trochlear) nerve, parts 1 (the ophthalmic nerve) and 2 (the maxillary nerve) of the fifth cranial (trigeminal) nerve, and the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve.

A cavernous sinus thrombosis is a blood clot within the cavernous sinus. This clot causes the cavernous sinus syndrome.

Cell

The basic living unit of body tissue. It contains a nucleus surrounded by cytoplasm and is enclosed by a membrane.

Minute protoplasmic masses that make up organized tissue, consisting of a nucleus which is surrounded by protoplasm which contains the various organelles and is enclosed in the cell or plasma membrane; cells are the fundamental, structural, and functional units of living organisms.

Central Nervous System (CNS)

Pertaining to the brain, cranial nerves and spinal cord. It does not include muscles or peripheral nerves.

The central nervous system (CNS) is made up of the spinal cord and brain. The brain receives nerve impulses from the spinal cord and cranial nerves. The spinal cord contains the nerves that carry messages between the body and the brain. Spinal cord injury occurs when there is damage to the cells within the spinal cord or the nerves of the spinal cord are severed.

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