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Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism

The inability of the gonads to function normally because of subnormal levels of the gonadotropins LH and FSH.

Can be due to pituitary disease or a disorder of the hypothalamus.


Serum sodium concentration and serum osmolarity normally are maintained under control involving stimulation of thirst, secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), and renal andling of filtered sodium.

Significant hyponatremia is relatively uncommon and nonspecific in presentation; irreparable harm can occur if abnormal serum sodium levels are corrected too quickly or too slowly.

  • Hypovolemic hyponatremia: Total body water (TBW) decreases, total body sodium (Na+) decreases to a greater extent. The extracellular fluid (ECF) volume is decreased.
  • Euvolemic hyponatremia: TBW increases while total sodium remains normal. The ECF volume is increased minimally to moderately but without the resence of edema.
  • Hypervolemic hyponatremia: Total body sodium increases, and TBW increases to a greater extent. The ECF is increased markedly, with the presence of edema.
  • Redistributive hyponatremia: Water shifts from the intracellular to the extracellular compartment, with a resultant dilution of sodium. The TBW and total body sodium are unchanged. This condition occurs with hyperglycemia or administration of mannitol.
  • Pseudohyponatremia: The aqueous phase is diluted by excessive proteins or lipids. The TBW and total body sodium are unchanged. This condition is seen with hypertriglyceridemia and multiple myeloma.


Pituitary gland.

The hypophysis, or pituitary is a small, pea-sized gland located at the base of the brain that functions as "The Master Gland." From its lofty position above the rest of the body it sends signals to the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, ovaries and testes, directing them to produce thyroid hormone, cortisol, estrogen, testosterone, and many more. These hormones have dramatic effects on metabolism, blood pressure, sexuality, reproduction, and other vital body functions. In addition, the pituitary gland produces growth hormone for normal development of height and prolactin for milk production.

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis

The system designed to produce sex steroids in proper amounts.

Involves coordianted production of GnRH, LH, FSH, and sex steroids (testosterone and estrogen).


A thumbnail-sized part of the brain located just above the pituitary gland to which it is connected.

The hypothalamus normally contains cells which make and release hormones that influence pituitary function.


Diminished muscle tone; limp muscles.

A diminishing of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.


Radiography of the uterus and fallopian tubes after the injection of radiopaque material.

Hysterosalpingography is used in female reproductive system disorder diagnosis; determination of disorders of the female reproductive system based on symptoms, medical history, risk factors, and clinical tests. Hysterosalpingography is an x-ray of the uterus and fallopian tubes that involves the injection of dye through the cervix.
This test shows the structures of the uterus and fallopian tubes to determine if there are any blockages or other problems. The test is usually done as part of an infertility examination. Abnormal results may indicate uterine tumors, intrauterine adhesions, developmental disorders, obstruction of the fallopian tubes, trauma, tubal adhesions, presence of foreign bodies, or ectopic pregnancy.
This test does carry risks such as endometrial infection (endometritis), fallopian tube infection (salpingitis), perforation of the uterus, allergic reaction to the contrast dye.
Hysterosalpingography should not be performed if you have pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), experiencing unexplained vaginal bleeding, or are currently menstruating. Report any signs or symptoms of infection to your health care provider immediately. Symptoms may include vaginal discharge, pain, or fever.


Sonography of the uterus and fallopian tubes using a transvaginal probe following the injection of sterile saline into the uterus.

See endovaginal ultrasound

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