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Cerebral

Referring to the cerebrum.

Of or relating to the brain or the intellect.

Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)

The clear fluid made in the ventricular cavities of the brain that bathes the brain and spinal cord. It circulates through the ventricles and the subarachnoid space.

The fluid that flows in and around the hollow spaces of the brain and spinal cord, and between two of the meninges (the thin layers of tissue that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord). Cerebrospinal fluid is made by tissue called the choroid plexus in the ventricles (hollow spaces) in the brain. Also called CSF. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis involves the removal of a small amount of the fluid that protects the brain and spinal cord. The fluid is tested to detect any bleeding or brain hemorrhage, diagnose infection to the brain and/or spinal cord, identify some cases of multiple sclerosis and other neurological conditions, and measure intracranial pressure.

Cerebrum

The largest area of the brain, the cerebrum occupies the uppermost part of the skull. It consists of two halves called hemispheres. Each half of the cerebrum is further divided into four lobes: frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital.

The forebrain is the largest and most highly developed part of the human brain; it consists primarily of the cerebrum and the structures hidden beneath it. The cerebrum sits at the outermost part of the brain and is the source of intellectual activities. It holds memories, allows you to plan, enables you to imagine and think, to recognize friends, read books, and play games. The cerebrum is split into two halves (hemispheres) by a deep fissure. Despite the split, the two cerebral hemispheres communicate with each other through a thick tract of nerve fibers that lies at the base of this fissure. Although the two hemispheres seem to be mirror images of each other, they are different. For instance, the ability to form words seems to lie primarily in the left hemisphere, while the right hemisphere seems to control many abstract reasoning skills.

Chemotherapy

Treatment of disease by means of chemical substances or drugs; usually used in reference to neoplastic (cancer) disease.

Chemotherapy is a body-wide (systemic) treatment the use of drugs to kill bacteria, viruses, fungi, and cancer cells; administered by mouth or injection. Most commonly, the term is used to refer to cancer-killing drugs.

Circumscribed

Having a border, localized.

Often associated with a capsule and benign tumors of the brain. For example, meningiomas, pituitary adenomas and acoustic neuromas. See diffuse.

Claustrophobic

A morbid fear of being in a confined place.

Claustrophobia; suffering from an abnormal dread of being in closed or narrow spaces.

Clinical

That which can be observed in patients. Research that uses patients to test new treatments, as opposed to laboratory testing or research in animals.

Clinical research is research that either directly involves a particular person or group of people or uses materials from humans, such as their behavior or samples of their tissue, that can be linked to a particular living person. (The process of clinical research, however, protects personal data.)

Clinical Cooperative Group

A group of academic institutions and treatment centers cooperating to perform clinical research and clinical trials.

The Clinical Trials Cooperative Group Program brings researchers, cancer centers, and doctors together into cooperative groups. These groups work with the NCI (National Cancer Institute) to identify important questions in cancer research, and design and conduct multisite clinical trials to answer these questions.

CNS

Central Nervous System.

The central nervous system (CNS) is made up of the spinal cord and brain. The brain receives nerve impulses from the spinal cord and cranial nerves. The spinal cord contains the nerves that carry messages between the body and the brain. Spinal cord injury occurs when there is damage to the cells within the spinal cord or the nerves of the spinal cord are severed.

CO

Childhood onset: adult patients with growth hormone deficiency from childhood.

Childhood onset as in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency occurring in childhood. Also referring to childhood onset diseases such as type 1 diabetes.

Colonoscope

An instrument which allows visualization of the inside of the colon.

A thin, tube-like instrument used to examine the inside of the colon. A colonoscope has a light and a lens for viewing and may have a tool to remove tissue.

Colonoscopy

Procedure to examine the colon and rectal tissues by means of an instrument known as a colonoscope.

Visual examination of the inner surface of the colon by means of an instrument for the examination of the interior of the colon -- the division of the large intestine extending from the first part of the large intestine to the rectum.

Congenital

Existing before or at birth.

Consisting at or dating from birth. Acquired during development in the uterus and not through heredity.

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

21-hydroxylase deficiency (also known as congenital adrenal hyperplasia)

An inherited disorder that affects the adrenal glands. These glands are located on top of the kidneys and produce a variety of hormones that regulate many essential functions in the body. Two of these hormones, cortisol and aldosterone, are produced from cholesterol through the activity of an enzyme called 21-hydroxylase. Cortisol has numerous functions such as maintaining blood sugar levels, protecting the body from stress, and suppressing inflammation. Aldosterone, sometimes called the salt-retaining hormone, acts on the kidneys to regulate the levels of salt and water in the body, which affects blood pressure. People with 21-hydroxylase deficiency have a shortage of the 21-hydroxylase enzyme, which impairs the conversion of cholesterol to cortisol and aldosterone. When the precursors of cortisol and aldosterone build up in the adrenal glands, they are converted to male sex hormones called androgens. Androgens are normally responsible for the appearance of secondary sex characteristics in males (virilization). Elevated levels of androgens can affect the growth and development of both males and females.

Contrast Agent, Contrast Medium

Substances used in radiography that allow visualization of certain tissues.

Any internally administered substance that has a different opacity from soft tissue on radiography or computed tomography; includes barium, used to make opaque parts of the gastrointestinal tract; water-soluble iodinated compounds, used to make opaque blood vessels or the genitourinary tract; may refer to air occurring naturally or introduced into the body; also, paramagnetic substances used in magnetic resonance imaging.

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