Most pituitary tumors can be removed transsphenoidally. The approach is through the sphenoid sinus, one of the facial air spaces behind the nose. Rarely, a craniotomy is required, where the skull is opened to reach the tumor. There are three basic approaches to the sella, which is the bony cavity in the skull base where the pituitary gland is located. Many neurosurgeons now use a direct transnasal approach, where an incision is made in the back wall of the nose and the sphenoid sinus is entered directly. It is also possible to make an incision along the front of the nasal septum, and make a tunnel back to the sphenoid sinus. Finally, it is possible to make an incision under the lip and approach through the upper gum, and enter the nasal cavity and then the sphenoid sinus.