Research Articles July 2020


COVID and the Endocrine System

Endocrine and metabolic aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Marazuela M, Giustina A, Puig-Domingo M.Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2020 Jul 9. doi: 10.1007/s11154-020-09569-2. Online ahead of print.PMID: 32643004 Review.

This is the case of diabetes and adrenal insufficiency in which prompt increase of insulin dosage and substitutive adrenal steroids through adoption of the sick day's rules should be warranted, as well as easy contact with the health care provider through telematic differe ...

Pediatric mental and behavioral health in the period of quarantine and social distancing (COVID-19).
Ye J.JMIR Pediatr Parent. 2020 Jul 7. doi: 10.2196/19867. Online ahead of print.PMID: 32634105
Pediatrics are a vulnerable group in this global public health emergency, as their nervous systems, endocrine systems and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes are not well developed. ...

Pituitary Tumors

Contemporary Management of Clinically Non-functioning Pituitary Adenomas: A Clinical Review.
AlMalki MH, Ahmad MM, Brema I, AlDahmani KM, Pervez N, Al-Dandan S, AlObaid A, Beshyah SA.Clin Med Insights Endocrinol Diabetes. 2020 Jun 24;13:1179551420932921. doi: 10.1177/1179551420932921. eCollection 2020.PMID: 32636692 Free PMC article. Review.
Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are benign pituitary tumours that constitute about one-third of all pituitary adenomas. ...Non-functioning pituitary carcinoma is extremely rare accounting for only 0.1% to 0.5 % of all pituitary tumour ...

Stereotactic reirradiation with temozolomide in patients with recurrent aggressive pituitary tumors and pituitary carcinomas.
Minniti G, Paolini S, Rea MLJ, Isidori A, Scaringi C, Russo I, Osti MF, Cavallo L, Esposito V.J Neurooncol. 2020 Jul 6. doi: 10.1007/s11060-020-03579-5. Online ahead of print.PMID: 32632895
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of a second course of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (re-SRT) and temozolomide (TMZ) as salvage treatment option in patients with aggressive pituitary tumors (APTs) and pituitary carcinomas (PCs). ...

Stem Cell Transcription Factor Sox2 Is Expressed in a Subset of Folliculo-stellate Cells of Growth Hormone-Producing Pituitary Neuroendocrine Tumours and Its Expression Shows No Association with Tumour Size or IGF1 Levels: a Clinicopathological Study of 109 Cases.
Soukup J, Česák T, Hornychová H, Michalová K, Michnová Ľ, Netuka D, Čáp J, Gabalec F.Endocr Pathol. 2020 Jul 6. doi: 10.1007/s12022-020-09634-1. Online ahead of print.PMID: 32632839
It has been implicated as a marker of stem cells in normal pituitaries and pituitary neuroendocrine tumours. To explore the clinical significance of Sox2 expression in histological sections, we performed immunohistochemical detection of Sox2 in 113 pituitary ...

Biomarkers of pituitary macroadenomas aggressive behaviour: a conventional MRI and DWI 3T study.
Conficoni A, Feraco P, Mazzatenta D, Zoli M, Asioli S, Zenesini C, Fabbri VP, Cellerini M, Bacci A.Br J Radiol. 2020 Jul 6:20200321. doi: 10.1259/bjr.20200321. Online ahead of print.PMID: 32628097
OBJECTIVE: Pituitary macroadenomas (PAs) are usually defined as benign intracranial tumors. However, they may present local aggressive course. ...Statistics included Mann-Whitney test, Spearman's test, and receiver operating characteristic analysis. A value of p ≤ 0 ...

Liver metastases from pituitary carcinomas mimicking visceral well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors: a series of four cases.
Venable ER, Kerr SE, Lopes MBS, Jones KA, Bellizzi AM, Mounajjed T, Raghunathan A, Hamidi O, Halfdanarson TR, Ryder M, Graham RP.Diagn Pathol. 2020 Jul 4;15(1):81. doi: 10.1186/s13000-020-00997-x.PMID: 32622369 Free PMC article.
In contrast, pituitary carcinoma is very rare, and there is limited data on its natural history and pathologic characterization. ...In summary, pituitary corticotroph carcinoma can metastasize to the liver and mimic well-differentiated NET....

Germinal defects of SDHx genes in patients with isolated pituitary adenoma.
Mougel G, Lagarde A, Albarel F, Essamet W, Luigi P, Mouly C, Vialon M, Cuny T, Castinetti F, Saveanu A, Brue T, Barlier A, Romanet P.Eur J Endocrinol. 2020 Jul 1:EJE-20-0054.R2. doi: 10.1530/EJE-20-0054. Online ahead of print.PMID: 32621582
INTRODUCTION: TThe '3PAs' syndrome, associating pituitary adenoma (PA) and pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PPGL), is sometimes associated with mutations in PPGL-predisposing genes such as SDHx or MAX. ...

Cyclin A in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
Lamback EB, Guterres A, Barbosa MA, Lima CHA, Silva DA, Camacho AHDS, Chimelli L, Kasuki L, Gadelha MR.Endocrine. 2020 Jul 3. doi: 10.1007/s12020-020-02402-5. Online ahead of print.PMID: 32621052
PURPOSE: Assess cyclin A in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) and compare its expression in non-invasive and non-proliferative tumors with invasive and proliferative tumors (12× higher risk of recurrence). METHODS: Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction to ...


Drug treatment strategies for secondary diabetes in patients with acromegaly.
Störmann S, Schopohl J.Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2020 Jul 7:1-13. doi: 10.1080/14656566.2020.1789098. Online ahead of print.PMID: 32633582


Spinal epidural lipomatosis with osteoporotic vertebral fracture presenting as acute thoracic myelopathy in a 33-year-old man with Cushing's disease.
Chaudhary K, Chandy D, Agrawal V, Dhawale A, Nagaonkar S.World Neurosurg. 2020 Jul 4:S1878-8750(20)31488-1. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2020.06.212. Online ahead of print.PMID: 32634631
Endogenous Cushing's syndrome is a rare cause of SEL. The authors report an unusual presentation of acute thoracic myelopathy due to SEL with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures in a patient with Cushing's disease. ...He had Cushingoid clinical features and ...

Hormonal Health

Rare variant of the epigenetic regulator SMCHD1 in a patient with pituitary hormone deficiency.
Kinjo K, Nagasaki K, Muroya K, Suzuki E, Ishiwata K, Nakabayashi K, Hattori A, Nagao K, Nozawa RS, Obuse C, Miyado K, Ogata T, Fukami M, Miyado M.Sci Rep. 2020 Jul 3;10(1):10985. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-67715-x.PMID: 32620854 Free PMC article.
Isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD), and septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) constitute a disease spectrum whose etiology remains largely unknown. ...

Pediatric Endocrine Disease

Genetic Anomalies of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Pediatrics.
Firouzi M, Sherkatolabbasieh H, Shafizadeh S.Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2020 Jul 4. doi: 10.2174/1871530320666200704144912. Online ahead of print.PMID: 32621723
Several different proteins regulate, directly or indirectly, the production of growth hormone from the pituitary gland, thereby complex genetics is involved. Defects in these genes are related to growth hormone deficiency solely, or deficiency of other hormones, sec ...

Pituitary Biology

Arterial Supply to the Pituitary Gland: A Comprehensive Review.
Cironi KA, Decater T, Iwanaga J, Dumont AS, Tubbs RS.World Neurosurg. 2020 Jul 4:S1878-8750(20)31497-2. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2020.06.221. Online ahead of print.PMID: 32634634 Review.
Knowledge of the blood supply to the pituitary gland is important for clinicians and surgeons alike. Therefore, a good working knowledge of this anatomy is important. The aim of this article is to review current anatomical knowledge of the blood supply to the pit ...


Two cases of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related hypophysitis diagnosed without pituitary biopsy.
Ma W, Wang X, Nie M, Fu J, Mao J, Wu X.Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Jun 27;11:2042018820924556. doi: 10.1177/2042018820924556. eCollection 2020.PMID: 32637064 Free PMC article.
Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicated thickening of pituitary stalk. His serum IgG4 was 13,500 mg/l and hormonal evaluation revealed isolated growth hormone deficiency. ...Impaired pituitary hormone secretion may be recovered in response to ste ...