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Dual photon absorptiometry. A technique used to measure body composition.

Dual-photon absorptiometry; a technique for measuring bone density. The method uses X rays rather than gamma rays as its photon source, represents a significant improvement in image quality and precision.

Drug Delivery

The method and route used to provide medication.

Example: Skin drug delivery systems that allow slow release of medications through the skin, which has made it possible to deliver certain treatments through means such as skin patches.

Dura Mater

The outermost, toughest, and most fibrous of the three membranes (meninges) that cover the brain and spinal cord.

The brain is made up of the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater. The dura mater is made up of two layers of whitish, nonelastic film or membrane. The outer layer is called the periosteum. The dura, or inner layer, lines the inside of the skull and creates small creases or sections in which parts of the brain are protected and secured. The two main folds of the dura in the brain are the falx and the tentorium. The falx separates the left and right half of the brain and the tentorium separates the upper and lower parts of the brain.


Impairment of speech (articulation), caused by damage or disorder of the tongue or speech muscles. Symptom may indicate pressure on the brain stem (medulla oblongata) or elsewhere in the posterior fossa.

Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from cranial nerve diseases, neuromuscular diseases, cerebellar diseases, basal ganglia diseases, brain stem diseases, or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts. The cortical language centers are intact in this condition.


Working improperly or abnormally.

Erectile dysfunction (ED) may be defined as the consistent inability to achieve or maintain an erection.


Difficulty in swallowing or inability to swallow.

Symptom usually indicates tumors involving the lower brain stem.

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If you are a nurse or medical professional, register for PNA CEU Membership and  earn CEU credits to learn about the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment options for patients with pituitary disorders. Help PNA reduce the time it takes for patients to get an accurate diagnosis.

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