Pituitary Glossary starting with I

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z #


Intracranial pressure, harmful when increased.

Intracranial pressure monitoring is done using a device placed inside the head which senses the pressure inside the brain cavity and sends data to a recording device. There are three procedures to monitor intracranial pressure:
1) A intraventricular catheter threaded into one of the two cavities of the brain, called lateral ventricles
2) A subarachnoid screw or bolt placed just through the skull in the space between the arachnoid membrane and cerebral cortex
3) A epidural sensor placed into the epidural space beneath the skull.


Produced by the liver, formerly known as somatomedin-C, and is a marker of the amount of GH secreted over time.


Increased intracranial pressure.

See ICP (intracranial pressure)



One of a group of related proteins made by leukocytes (white blood cells) and other cells in the body. IL-6 is made mainly by some T lymphocyte. It causes B lymphocytes to make more antibodies and also causes fever by affecting areas of the brain that control body temperature. IL-6 made in the laboratory is used as a biological response modifier to boost the immune system in cancer therapy. IL-6 is a type of cytokine. Also called interleukin-6.
Researchers have found that patients with plasma cell tumors have important abnormalities in other bone marrow cells and that these abnormalities may also cause excess plasma cell growth. Certain cells in the bone marrow called dendritic cells release a hormone called interleukin-6 (IL-6), which stimulates growth in normal plasma cells. Excess IL-6 production by these cells appears to be an important factor in development of plasma cell tumors.


Use of the body’s immune system to fight tumors. See biological response modifier.

Treatment to boost or restore the ability of the immune system to fight cancer, infections, and other diseases. Also used to lessen certain side effects that may be caused by some cancer treatments. Agents used in immunotherapy include monoclonal antibodies, growth factors, and vaccines. These agents may also have a direct antitumor effect. Also called biological response modifier therapy, biological therapy, biotherapy, and BRM therapy.

Implanted Port

A catheter connected to a quarter-sized disk that is surgically placed just below the skin in the chest or abdomen.

The catheter tube is inserted into a large vein or artery directly into the bloodstream. Fluids, drugs, or blood products can be infused or blood drawn through a needle that is stuck into the disk. Examples of manufacturer’s names: Port-o-cath, Infusaport, Lifeport.


Refers to tumors that cannot be approached by surgical procedure.

Tumors that are deep in the brain or beneath vital structures. Inaccessible tumors cannot be approached by standard surgical techniques.


Scientific/medical reason for performing a certain procedure.

In medicine, a condition which makes a particular treatment or procedure advisable. A sign or a circumstance which points to or shows the cause, pathology, treatment, or outcome of an attack of disease.


Refers to a tumor that penetrates the normal, surrounding tissue.

Tumor that has spread from where it started into surrounding, healthy tissue.

Informed Consent

The right to have information explained to you so that you fully understand and agree to the nature of the proposed treatment.

Making a decision about participating in a research study involves understanding the potential risks and benefits as well as your rights and responsibilities. The presentation and discussion of these important issues are part of the process called informed consent.

Interstitial Radiation Therapy

The implantation of radioactive seeds directly into a tumor.

A type of radiation therapy in which radioactive material sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters is placed directly into or near a tumor. Also called implant radiation therapy, internal radiation therapy, and radiation brachytherapy.
Brachytherapy uses radiation to destroy cancer cells and shrink tumors. The radiation source, which looks like seeds, ribbons, or wires, is put into the body by using a catheter placed in or near the cancer cells. Sometimes an applicator or a balloon attached to a thin tube is used. Depending on the type of implant, the radiation source may be permanent, or stay in place for minutes, hours, or days.

Interventional Radiology

The clinical subspecialty that uses fluoroscopy, CT, and ultrasound to guide percutaneous (through the skin) procedures such as performing biopsies, draining fluids, inserting catheters, or dilating or stenting narrowed ducts or vessels.

Interventional radiologists are physicians specializing in minimally invasive, targeted treatments. They use X-rays, MRI and other imaging to insert a catheter in the body, usually in an artery, to treat at the source of the disease non-surgically. As the inventors of angioplasty and the catheter-delivered stent, which were first used in the legs to treat peripheral arterial disease, interventional radiologists pioneered minimally invasive modern medicine.
Today many conditions that once required surgery can be treated nonsurgically by interventional radiologists. Interventional radiology treatments offer less risk, less pain and less recovery time compared to open surgery.

Intestinal Polyps

Small growths in the bowel with the potential for further growth.

Intestinal polyps may transform from a benign to a malignant state.


Within the skull.

Intracranial Pressure is the pressure within the cranial cavity, influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, cerebrospinal fluid dynamics, and skull rigidity.
Increased intracranial pressure, or rise in normal brain pressure, can be due to a rise in cerebrospinal fluid pressure. It can also be due to increased pressure within the brain matter caused by lesions, a tumor, or swelling. An increase in intracranial pressure is a serious medical issue. The pressure can damage the central nervous system by restricting blood flow through blood vessels that supply the brain, or by pressing on important brain structures. Increased intracranial pressure is an emergency. The person will be in the intensive care unit of the hospital. The health care team will measure and monitor the patient’s neurological and vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure.
Treatment for increased intracrainial pressure may involve breathing support, draining of cerebrospinal fluid to lower pressure in the brain, and/or medications to decrease swelling. The underlying cause of the pressure, such as a tumor or hemorrhage must also be treated.


Into a muscle.

Within or into muscle, such as injection into muscle (IM)

Available Now!

The Pituitary Patient Resource Guide Sixth Edition is now available! Be one of the first to have the most up-to-date information. The Pituitary Patient Resource Guide a one of a kind publication intended as an invaluable source of information not only for patients but also their families, physicians, and all health care providers. It contains information on symptoms, proper testing, how to get a diagnosis, and the treatment options that are available. It also includes Pituitary Network Association’s patient resource listings for expert medical care.

Buy Now

PNA Gratefully Acknowledges our Supporters

Continuing Education Program

If you are a nurse or medical professional, register for PNA CEU Membership and  earn CEU credits to learn about the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment options for patients with pituitary disorders. Help PNA reduce the time it takes for patients to get an accurate diagnosis.

Register Now!

For more information click here!

Coming Events

Xeris Recorlev

Patient’s Corner

Introducing Patient’s Corner, a place for you, the patient, to share your stories. If you have a story you would like to share please contact us below.

Submit Your Story


Pituitary Patient Tool Kit

Check out our new educational tools!

Downloadable Pituitary Brochures

Our print quality brochures are now available for download.